Binomial for Test Design and Analysis
presents a summary of the techniques available to use the cumulative
binomial distribution to assist in the design of effective reliability
demonstration tests and also to determine the reliability that has been
demonstrated in a test with few or no failures.
[Editor's Note: This article has been updated since its original publication to reflect a more recent version of the software interface.]
The Need for Effective Design and Analysis of
The need to design a test that proves that a product has met a
certain reliability goal is a fairly common occurrence in industry. In
many cases, the manufacturers desire to prove that their product designs
meet a certain reliability specification, but do not have the resources to
conduct a full-scale reliability/life test. The result is not a rigorous
life test in which failure information is eagerly sought, but rather a
demonstration test in which failures are hoped to be avoided. These
demonstration tests are often of a limited scope and are frequently
conducted by product engineers with little or no knowledge of life data
analysis principles. These demonstration tests often occur toward the end
of a product development cycle, when the product design has been improved
to the point at which failures are, it is hoped, relatively infrequent.
There is usually a great deal of pressure to maintain the development
schedule and as a result, tests that merely demonstrate an acceptable
minimum reliability level are required.
Although these tests yield minimal meaningful information about the
product's life characteristics, they are a common requirement for many
engineers in the design and manufacturing arena. Therefore, these
engineers need to be able to design and allocate resources for these tests
without having a great deal of detailed information beforehand.
Fortunately, the cumulative binomial distribution can be put to use to
help develop a rough estimate of the test design, which includes test
duration and the number of units to be tested, without having to develop a
complete life test. Otherwise, a large quantity of failures must be
achieved before any conclusions can be drawn about the reliability of the
product. The cumulative binomial distribution can also be used to analyze the
results of tests in which there were few or no failures.
Using the Cumulative Binomial Distribution
The cumulative binomial distribution takes the form:
- C.L. is the confidence level for the test. This can be thought of as
the probability of more than the maximum number of allowable failures
occurring on test.
- N is the number of units on test.
- r is the maximum allowable number of failures on test.
- R is the reliability of the product for the duration of the test.
Essentially, the test design process involves solving the cumulative
binomial equation for one variable, given that the other variables are
known or can be assumed. This is particularly important for the variable R, the reliability. An estimate of the reliability value for the duration
of the test is necessary when using the cumulative binomial for test
design. In some cases, it may be necessary to provide values for the
parameter estimates of the product's life distribution for more detailed
calculations. The next sections describe how test design information can
be obtained by solving the cumulative binomial equation. Solving the
cumulative binomial equation for certain variables can be difficult and in
some cases almost impossible without the use of a computer. The test
design utility included with ReliaSoft's Weibull++
software performs these estimations automatically.
1: Weibull++ Reliability Demonstration Test Utility
Number of Test Units Based on Allotted Test
Time and Required Reliability or MTTF
In this case, the engineer has an allotted test time and needs
to know how many units need to be tested for that time in order to
demonstrate a required reliability. It is assumed that the engineer either
has information regarding the life distribution of the product or can
supply an estimate of the reliability of the product at the specified test
time. If the engineer has the distribution parameters, he or she can
calculate the reliability at the test duration time, otherwise the
estimate of the product's reliability can be substituted directly for R.
Then, given the desired confidence level (C.L.), the maximum allowable
failures (r) and the reliability value (R), the cumulative binomial
equation can be solved for the number of units (N). Similarly, if the test
is to demonstrate a required MTTF (mean time to failure), at least one of
the parameters of the product's life distribution must be known in order
to solve for R. The exception to this is for the one-parameter exponential
distribution, where the parameter is assumed to be the specified MTTF.
Then, the MTTF and the parameter are used to calculate the value of R for
substitution in the cumulative binomial equation and the procedure is the
same as that described above.
Test Duration Based on Number of Test Units
and Reliability Characteristics
In order to determine the proper test duration, the
distribution of the product's life data must be known. The engineer knows
the number of test units (N), the number of allowable failures (r) and the
desired confidence level (C.L.). With this information, the cumulative
binomial equation can be solved for R. Once the reliability value (R) has
been determined, it can be substituted into the appropriate reliability
equation and the test time can be solved for given the distribution
parameters and the reliability value.
Demonstrated Reliability Based on Test Results
The cumulative binomial can also be used to determine the
reliability that has been demonstrated on a test with few or no failures.
There does not have to be any prior information about the life
distribution of the products on test in order to make this assessment.
However, if enough failures are encountered on the test, it may be
advisable to perform a reliability analysis on the data. In order to
determine the demonstrated reliability, you need the number of units on
test (N), the number of failures on the test (r) and the desired
confidence level (C.L.). With this information, the cumulative binomial
equation can be solved for R, which is the reliability demonstrated on the
test. However, the reliability value is associated only with the test
Demonstrated Confidence Level Based on Test
Results and Reliability Characteristics
The confidence level demonstrated on a test can be calculated
based on the test results and reliability characteristics. Given the
number of units on test (N), the number of failures (r) and the calculated
or estimated reliability (R), the value of the confidence level (C.L.) can
easily be calculated with the cumulative binomial equation.